Periodontal Disease, generally known as “periodontytis” is actually an inflammation of the tissues supporting the teeth, consisting of gums, jaw bone and periodontal ligament, due to infectious stimuli..
You must know that teeth are fixed in the jaw bone in a cavity called tooth socket. Between the external wall and the internal wall of the tooth socket there is no direct contact but a network of ligaments (fibers) called periodontal ligament, made up of a special elastic tissue that hold teeth in this socket. Elasticity of these ligaments makes this network to act as a shock absorber, providing tooth high reliability in time. Periodontitis (periodontal disease) primarily affects these fibers, which are destroyed, leading to bone resorption (disappearance) around the teeth until they become mobile and can no longer fulfil its function.
The main reason that these ligaments are damaged is infectious attack made by microorganisms that develop tartar and plaque present at this level. Often, the plaque is covered by gum swells and hides it so that the only effective way not to have this problem is scaling and cleaning teeth made by medical professional at least every 6 months, with personal hygiene achieved by brushing, flossing supplemented by the use of mouthwashes or, more recently, by mouth showers.
It must be understood that with age the ligaments and jawbone, however suffer a process of degeneration, but if periodontal disease process is much faster, and there is hereditary cases, unfortunately very difficult to control, such as juvenile periodontitis .
It is also very important to understand that this condition is not curable, but controllable, meaning that doctors can get some improvements, and primarily can delay progression of the disease, but it all depends on when we present to the doctor. As later we come to the dentist the disease will be more difficult to treat and control and sometimes even impossible.
The treatment consists of removing plaque and infected tissue caused by this. This can be achieved as follows:
- Scaling and professional cleaning – tartar removal using ultrasonic and rotary brushing plaque;
- Scaling in depth – subgingival plaque removal;
- Subgingival Curettage – removal of subgingival plaque and infected tissue due to its granulation tissue
- Flap surgery – removal of subgingival plaque and infected tissue because it’s using hand tools by exposing the jaw bone by removing gum on the affected areas.
After removal of subgingival plaque and granulation tissue, in some cases, the remaining bone defects (areas of missing bone) can be filled with special substances that are designed to stimulate bone growth ( addition of Bio-Oss).